Reference

3G mobile telecommunications

What is 3G? 3G – short for third generation – is a generic term for the next generation of mobile telecommunications systems. Mobile phones today are predominantly ‘2G’, and use the GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) or CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) digital systems. These protocols support high bit-rate voice communications and limited data...

A-Levels

A-Levels are properly referred to as the Advanced General Certificate of Education. They are one of the types of principal examination course studied by pupils in England, Wales and Northern Ireland immediately after the conclusion of compulsory education,

Abortion

What is abortion? Abortion describes the medical procedure for the premature termination of pregnancy. Abortion procedures change according to the gestation (stage) of the pregnancy. The gestation is measured in weeks counting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period. These methods range from the administration of drugs at early stages, through to...

Academies

What are Academies? In the English education system academies are publicly-funded schools which operate independently of local authorities within a framework designed to promote innovation, raise school standards and increase levels of achievement for all children. Academies have greater autonomy than traditional state schools in areas such as delivery of the curriculum, setting staff pay...

Action Programmes (Europe)

Upon appointment, the EU Commission issues a five-year action programme, stating broadly the actions and legislation it intends to pursue. A more specific version of this is issued each year. In addition, action programmes for particular policy areas are issued that do not necessarily coincide with the Commission's term of office. This action programme is...

Adam Afriyie

Adam Afriyie, Conservative MP for Windsor

Adam Holloway

Adam Holloway, Conservative MP for Gravesham

Adjournment Debates

A debate on a motion for the adjournment of the House (an adjournment debate) allows for an issue to debated without a debate. It is best to think of motions to adjourn as technical devices to allow for debate without a vote rather than as a move to end proceedings. Broadly, an adjournment debate can...

Adoption and Fostering

Adoption is the term given for the permanent transfer of legal rights in relation to the parental responsibility of a child. Foster care describes the temporary acquisition of guardianship rights in relation to a child. Foster care is often used when a child is waiting to be adopted or the courts are considering an adoption order.

Adrian Bailey

Adrian Bailey, Labour MP for West Bromwich West

Adrian Sanders

Torbay, Liberal Democrat

Aidan Burley

Cannock Chase, Conservative

Air Pollution

The European Environment Agency defines air pollution as "the presence of contaminant or pollutant substances in the air at a concentration that interferes with human health or welfare, or produces other harmful environmental effects."

Airport expansion – London

London airports have seen continued passenger growth since the end of 2008 and London's three largest airports (Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted) are all expected to be at capacity by 2030. This predicted growth in demand has prompted a national debate on how best to provide more capacity in the future for London and the South East.

Akshata Murthy Profile

Overview Born in April 1980 in Hubli, a small town 250 miles north of Bangalore, Akshata Murthy was raised by her paternal grandparents in India. This gave room for her parents to build the software firm Infosys.  Her father, Nagvara Murthy, was Chief Executive of Infosys from 1981 to 2002. By 2019, Infosys’ revenues had...

Alan Brown

Alan Brown, SNP MP for Kilmarnock & Loudoun

Alan Campbell

Alan Campbell, Labour MP for Tynemouth

Alan Duncan

Alan Duncan, Conservative MP for Rutland and Melton

Alan Johnson

Alan Johnson, Labour MP for Kingston upon Hull West and Hessle