issue brief


Immigration relates to the movement of peoples from one country into another, for residential rather than visiting purposes, which may be for a number of reasons, including economic, familial, social or personal.Read More

Immigration removal/detention centres

Immigration removal centres are holding centres for foreign nationals awaiting decisions on their asylum claims or awaiting deportation following a failed application.Read More

Income Tax

Income Tax is the principal form of direct personal taxation in the UK. Read More


In economic terms the word inflation is used to describe a general rise in prices across the whole economy over a sustained period.Read More

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a multilateral financial institution, established in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations.Read More


The Republic of Iraq, generally known as 'Iraq', is a country in the Middle East bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait. Read More

Issue brief: Energy policy

'Keeping the lights on' might seem like a flippant cliché to some, but it is a serious business for those tasked with making sure there is enough electricity to go round over the next century or so. Read More


What is ITV? Independent Television (ITV) was the UK’s first commercial television network. In addition to the flagship terrestrial service ITV1, the ITV network includes ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CiTV the first dedicated commercial children’s channel. ITV operates 15 individual regional licences, each reflecting regional variations in consumer demand and identity. Eleven of the ITV...Read More

Judicial Independence

Most constitutional theories require that the judiciary is separate from and independent of the government, in order to ensure the rule of law - that is, to ensure that the law is enforced impartially and consistently no matter who is in power, and without undue influence from any other source.Read More

Labour Leadership

What is the Labour leadership? The Labour party leader heads the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP) and is appointed as Prime Minister when the party holds a majority in the House of Commons. In practice, the leader shapes the direction and policy of the party. Tony Blair led the Labour party from 1994 but announced after...Read More

Landfill Tax

Landfill Tax is an environmental tax paid on top of normal landfill rates by any company, local authority or other organisation that wishes to dispose of waste in landfill.Read More

Local government structure

Local government in England operates under either a one tier system - unitary authorities, or a two tier system - county and district councils.Read More

London 2012 Olympics

The International Olympic Committee voted in July 2005 for London to hold the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, with the majority of facilities centred in the capital but many other locations hosting events, training villages and support facilities. Read More

London airports expansion

London airports have seen continued passenger growth since the end of 2008 and London's three largest airports (Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted) are all expected to be at capacity by 2030. This predicted growth in demand has prompted a national debate on how best to provide more capacity in the future for London and the South East.Read More

London government

"Greater London" comprises 32 London Boroughs and the historic City of London.Read More

Mayor of London

The role of the Mayor of London was created under the Greater London Authority Act 1999 as part of the Labour government's commitment to restore a city-wide government for London.Read More

Medical Negligence and Compensation

'Medical negligence' describes when medical intervention in the treatment of a patient has materially contributed to a deterioration of a patient's condition.Read More


MI5, properly known as the Security Service, is the UK's security intelligence agency. Although the "MI" stands for "Military Intelligence", MI5 is a civilian agency without formal executive powers.Read More


MI6, properly known as the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), is the UK's external intelligence agency - that is, it is responsible for protecting and promoting British interests and security overseas. Read More