issue brief

Vehicle Excise Duty

Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) is an annual tax on the ownership of road vehicles, frequently referred to as "car tax" although it applies equally to vans, lorries and motorcycles.Read More

Voting Systems and Electoral Reform

Proportional Representation (PR) is the principle behind a number of electoral systems, all of which attempt to ensure that the outcome of the election reflects the proportion of support gained by each competing group.Read More