issue brief

Identity Cards

What are identity cards? The UK has traditionally not had a system of identity cards during peacetime, with the idea of officials asking for citizens’ papers long seen as something highly alien to Britain. Identity cards are used for a variety of purposes, but the basic principle underlying them all is that the bearer of...Read More


Immigration relates to the movement of peoples from one country into another, for residential rather than visiting purposes, which may be for a number of reasons, including economic, familial, social or personal.Read More

Immigration removal/detention centres

Immigration removal centres are holding centres for foreign nationals awaiting decisions on their asylum claims or awaiting deportation following a failed application.Read More

Income Tax

Income Tax is the principal form of direct personal taxation in the UK. Read More


In economic terms the word inflation is used to describe a general rise in prices across the whole economy over a sustained period.Read More

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a multilateral financial institution, established in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations.Read More


The Republic of Iraq, generally known as 'Iraq', is a country in the Middle East bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait. Read More

Issue brief: Energy policy

'Keeping the lights on' might seem like a flippant cliché to some, but it is a serious business for those tasked with making sure there is enough electricity to go round over the next century or so. Read More


What is ITV? Independent Television (ITV) was the UK’s first commercial television network. In addition to the flagship terrestrial service ITV1, the ITV network includes ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CiTV the first dedicated commercial children’s channel. ITV operates 15 individual regional licences, each reflecting regional variations in consumer demand and identity. Eleven of the ITV...Read More