issue brief

Reference

Civil Liberties

Civil liberties are basic rights and freedoms granted to citizens of a country through national common or statute law. Read More

Climate Change Levy

The Climate Change Levy (CCL) is an environmental tax on energy supplies to industry, commerce, agriculture, local administration and a number of other services. It does not apply at all to domestic energy supplies.Read More

Class Sizes

"Class size" is a statistical measure employed by the Department for Education which measures the number of pupils taught in a class during a single selected period of a particular school day. This day is usually set to be in January each year to coincide with the Annual School Census.Read More

Cannabis – Medicinal Use

What is Cannabis? Cannabis is a durable hemp plant. The cannabis plant can be used to produce a number of products including seeds, pulp, and medicine. The pulp is used as fuel and to make paper, the seed is used in foods, and the oil from the seed can be used as a base for...Read More

Crossrail

The Cross London Rail Links (Crossrail) project is a joint venture company established by Transport for London and the Strategic Rail Authority. Its task is to promote and develop two new rail routes through London.Read More

CCTV

What is CCTV? ‘CCTV’ stands for closed circuit television. CCTV is used for a number of monitoring and surveillance purposes, but is mainly used for security purposes. CCTV involves the use of an unmanned, remotely mounted video camera system, transmitting live pictures back to a television screen where developments can be monitored and recorded. Background...Read More

Crown Prosecution Service

The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is an independent judicial agency responsible for the preparation and presentation of criminal prosecutions in the UK.Read More

Cancer Research

What is cancer? Cancer is any malignant growth or tumour caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. It is widely believed that damaged DNA and genes are the ‘driving force’ behind the development of cancer and they are therefore the focus of cancer research. Unlike in healthy cells, damaged DNA is not capable of repair...Read More

Cancer Treatment

Cancer is any malignant growth or tumour caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division.Read More

Cannabis

What is cannabis? Cannabis is a durable hemp plant. The cannabis plant can be used to produce a number of products including seeds, pulp, and medicine. The pulp is used as fuel and to make paper, the seed is used in foods, and the oil from the seed can be used as a base for...Read More

Capital Punishment

Capital punishment is the use of the death penalty by the state.Read More

Channel Tunnel

The Channel Tunnel, also known as 'Euro-tunnel' (or 'Chunnel'), is a series of three tunnels (two carrying, one service tunnel) linking the southern coast of England near Folkestone to the northern coast of France outside Calais.Read More

Child Abuse

Child abuse is a generic term describing the physical or mental mistreatment of anyone under the age of 16.Read More

Child Poverty

Child poverty, as with poverty itself, is a complex notion to define precisely.Read More

Climate Change

During the last century, concern has grown about the pace at which climate change has been progressing and the extent to which human activity may be aggravating and distorting natural processes.Read More

Carbon offsetting

Carbon offsetting aims to achieve an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases. Rather than reducing carbon emissions, individuals and businesses are encouraged to compensate for their emissions to achieve a carbon neutral net result.Read More

Corporal Punishment

Corporal punishment refers to the use of physical punishment to correct behaviour. The term derives from the Latin corpus, meaning body.Read More

Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Maastricht Treaty of 1993 allows the EU to develop a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), covering all areas of foreign and security policy.Read More

Cloning

Cloning is one of the most controversial areas of scientific research of recent times. The term 'cloning' means the asexual reproduction of identical copies of an original, and it is human cloning (and to a lesser extent animal cloning) for reproductive purposes that causes considerable public disquiet.Read More