Executive Agencies and Non-Departmental Public Bodies

Before the Next Steps reforms introduced in 1988, all government activity took place within Whitehall Departments headed by Ministers. The aim of the reforms was to 'hive off' activities to arms-length organisations, or Executive Agencies, whilst retaining accountability to Ministers and to Parliament. To this end, each agency has a chief executive, who is responsible...Read More


Government spending is controlled by the Treasury, which must account for all expenditure by departments. Treasury Ministers and officials must approve all policies that would require expenditure and, as such, play a role in the formulation and implementation of all substantive government policy. The majority of spending by departments is agreed in negotiations between the...Read More