Creators can encourage gaming communities to self-police against bigotry
When respected and admired professionals in the gaming industry promote tolerance and introduce their audience to different ideas about gender and sexuality, their young gaming fans will follow suit, becoming more tolerant of others.
That’s the conclusion of new research, published this week, which reveals the true nature of an online videogame community. It shows that such communities are not all full of misogyny and homophobia, as implied by some commentary on #Gamergate – a controversial protest over ethics in videogame journalism that quickly escalated into misogynistic attacks against prominent women in the industry.
Dr Amanda Potts, a researcher at the ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science (CASS) based at Lancaster University, analysed the language used by a particular popular video game community that has grown up around the videogame Minecraft – a game which is like a virtual version of Lego where people can build fantasy worlds. The community is based around a network of popular YouTube channels, where professional gamers upload videos of their characters exploring the Minecraft world. Subscribers to the channel, 50 per cent of whom are aged between 13 to 24, and 85 per cent of whom are male, can then follow the videos and comment on them.
Previous research has found that communities like this tend to assume that the majority of users are male and heterosexual, with community members using language that supports traditional stereotypes where relationships are strictly between men and women, where males are macho hunter/gatherers, and females are homemakers. However, Dr Potts found that in this particular community many of the videos depicted male characters as sharing a ‘bromance’, with lots of homosexual innuendos and puns being used to suggest that the characters were in a sexual or romantic relationship. Dr Potts found that where users had been exposed to these different ideas surrounding sexuality, they were less likely to use homophobic language themselves, and were more likely to censure others who did.
“In videogame forums, there is sometimes an expectation that community members share certain qualities (like being straight and male) and agree upon quite narrow conceptions of identity,” says Dr Amanda Potts. “I found that when popular channel producers uploaded gaming videos that depicted unexpected relationships between men, viewers and subscribers of the channel became more accepting and tolerant. What you ended up with was a community that self-policed against homophobia.”
Online gaming communities have often hit the headlines for the wrong reasons lately, as #Gamergate, a protest ostensibly about ethics in videogame journalism, boiled over and led to prominent women in the gaming industry being hurled with misogynistic abuse. Two female game developers were forced to flee their homes in fear after receiving rape and death threats. According to Dr Amanda Potts, her study suggests that it is up to video producers and professionals to lead the way in promoting inclusiveness in games.
“When powerful people, in this case the video producers who are revered by their young fans, use language that promotes tolerance and inclusiveness, there is a trickledown effect where young people begin to avoid homophobic language themselves.”
“What we are seeing with #Gamergate is that the more powerful video producers and professionals are divided in their points of view, and are taking up arguments for both sides of the story. So this leads to divided opinions amongst the different fan communities, who aren’t being given a strong enough message that abuse of women and other groups perceived to be in the gaming minority is wrong.”
“If game producers don’t take the lead in working against harassment, then it is much harder for communities to organise themselves positively and powerfully. Not creating and promoting an inclusive environment as a producer leads to a lack of inclusiveness in fandom.”
For further information contact:
· Dr Amanda Potts
Telephone: 01524 510 827
ESRC Press Office:
· Aaron Boardley
Telephone: 01793 413122
· Susie Watts
Telephone: 01793 413119
NOTES FOR EDITORS
1. This research was published in the paper ‘LOVE YOU GUYS (NO HOMO)’ – How gamers and fans play with sexuality, gender, and Minecraft on YouTube in Critical Discourse Studies.
2. The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funds research into the big social and economic questions facing us today. We also develop and train the UK’s future social scientists. Our research informs public policies and helps make businesses, voluntary bodies and other organisations more effective. Most importantly, it makes a real difference to all our lives. The ESRC is an independent organisation, established by Royal Charter in 1965, and funded mainly by the Government. In 2015 the ESRC celebrates its 50th anniversary. www.esrc.ac.uk.
3. Lancaster University is ranked among the top 15 universities in the UK and the top 150 in the world. It is the highest ranked University in the North West of England in the Guardian, Times/Sunday Times and Complete University Guide. It is also top for employability and student satisfaction in its region. More than 90 per cent of Lancaster’s research is judged to be internationally excellent. The University has a strong focus on working with business and has helped create more than 4,000 new jobs. www.lancs.ac.uk